Monday, 25 November 2013

Those Present During the Siege K-L


Kavanagh, Mr. Thomas Henry ,wife and 4 children. Assistant Commissioner in Oude. The Kavanaghs had 11 servants with them during the siege, 1 was killed. The cook Badoola Khan had been with Kavanagh for 20 years and his wife had been the ayah of Mrs. Kavanagh when she was a child. Another servant was named Rujab Ali. (Kavanagh, p. 55-56) A relative of Mrs. Kavanagh had been killed at Meerut (Kavanagh, pp. 4). Kavanagh himself received the V.C. for bringing  a message, while disguised as a native, to Sir Colin Campbell. He is one of 5 civilians to receive theV.C.
Keir, Lieut. 41st Regt.,N.I.
Kemble, Capt. Matthew Francis. 41st Regt., N.I. Died of his wounds.
Kendall, Mrs., and 1 child.
Kennedy, Mrs. and daughter.
Keogh, Sergt., wife and 5 children (3 dead). See Eldridge, for details of Sergt. Keogh., Keogh was released during the siege, was killed at the Redan Battery and behaved "most gallantly." (Harris, pp 40).
Knight (or Kight), Mr. Fitz-Herbert. Editor, Central Star, Uncovenanted Service.
Kingsley (or Kinsley) Mrs. and 4 children. Wife of Sergeant Kingsley.


Langmore, Lieut. Adjutant, 71st  Regt. N.I.  "Lieutenant Langmore, with the remnant of his regiment (the 71st), held a very exposed position between the hospital and the water gate. This gallant and deserving young soldier and his men were entirely without shelter from the weather, both by night and by day."(despatch of Brg. Inglis).
Lawrence, Sir Henry Montgomery,  Commissioner of Oude, K.C.B. Died July 4th of wounds.
Lawrence, Lieut.Samuel Hill. H.M. 32nd Foot.  He was 26 years old, and a lieutenant, with a recent field promotion to captain, in the 32nd. He received the V.C. for acts of bravery on the 7th of July and the 26th of September. "For distinguished bravery in a Sortie on the 7th of July, 1857, made, as reported by Major Wilson, late Deputy-Assistant Adjutant-General of the Lucknow Garrison, for the purpose of examining a house strongly held by the Enemy, in order to discover whether or not a mine was being driven from it. Major Wilson states that he saw the attack, and was an eye-witness to the great personal gallantry of Major Lawrence on the occasion, he being the first person to mount the ladder, and enter the window of the house, in effecting which he had his pistol knocked out of his hand by one of the Enemy:—also, for distinguished gallantry in a Sortie, on the 26 September 1857, in charging with two of his men, in advance of his Company, and capturing a 9-pounder gun."
Lawrence, Mr.John, wife and 2 children (Herbert Thomas William, died of cholera, 15th Aug.). Uncovenanted Service, Sago's Post.
Leach, Mr. F. Civil Apothecary. Civil Dispensary, Uncovenanted Service.
Leslie, Mr., and wife. Uncovenanted Service.
Lester, Lieut. Henry Strickland.  Assistant Commissioner at Seetapore. Aged 30,Killed/Died of wounds. Wounded during an assault on Gubbin's Post. Son of Lt. J.Y. Lester, 7th Royal Fusiliers. 
Lewin, 2nd Lieut. E. Powney, wife and 2 children (1 born during the siege. Daughter Edith Scott died 20th August). Bengal Artillery.Lieut. Lewin died of his wounds on the 26th of July.  
Lincoln, Mr., wife and 1 child. Uncovenanted Service.
Longden, Mrs. Sergeant.
Longton, Mrs., and 1 child.
Loughnan, Lieut. 13th Regt. N.I..
Lowe, Captain (Major)  HM 32nd Foot. Referred to in Gubbins as Captain Lowe. Although mentioned other lists as Major Lowe, he is also Captain in Joyce. (p. 181).
Lucas, Mr. Fitzherbert Dacre. Described by Gubbins as an " Irish gentleman, travelling", he was killed on the 29th of September, he was 34 years old. Formerly captain in the Tipperary Militia Artillery, he was the 3rd son of Right Hon. Edward Lucas of Castle Shane Monaghan.
Luffman, James. Martiniere pupil. Senior boy. Was wounded under the left clavical (Hilton)
Luffman, John. Martiniere pupil. 
Luxted, Mr. Pensioner, wife and daughter. Unconvenanted Service.
Lynch, Mrs.Sergeant and 1 child.
Lynch, James. Martiniere pupil. Senior boy. 

Monday, 18 November 2013

Notes on the Lists

Memorial Plaque for Henry Lawrence, Dr. Fayrer's House

In the preceding lists, I have compiled the names of the people present during the siege of Lucknow. They have been compiled using the following books:

A Personal Journal of Siege of Lucknow. Capt. R.P. Anderson, 1858.
A Widow's Reminiscence of the Siege of Lucknow. Katherine Bartrum, 1858.
Day by Day at Lucknow, a Journal of the Siege of Lucknow. Adelaide Case, 1858.
Recollections of My Life. Surgeon-General Sir Joseph Fayrer, Bart. 1900. 
An Account of Mutinies in Oude and the Siege of Lucknow. Martin Richard Gubbins, 1858.
The Siege of Lucknow., a Diary. The Honourable Lady Inglis. 1892.
How I Won the Victoria Cross. T. Henry Kavanagh, Esq. 1860.
A Memoir, Letters and Diary of the Rev.Henry S. Polehampton, MA. 2nd Edition, 1858.
Recollections of a Lucknow Veteran. Major General J. Ruggles. 1902.
A Personal Narrative of the Siege of Lucknow. L.E. Ruutz Rees, 1858.
The Defence of Lucknow. By a Staff Officer (Wilson), 1858.

Compiling such a list is at best, somewhat rule of thumb. I have tried to be as accurate as possible in regard to the spelling of names, and included in some cases children who were otherwise not mentioned anywhere else. When possible, I have added Christian names, a date of death and any other details available.

It is also necessary to mention that not all the people mentioned are, in the strictest sense, residency defenders. Some were killed before the siege commenced but it seemed unfair to not include them, seeing as some had family in the residency. The list does not include those men (as yet) who came in with Havelock or with Campbell. I am still in the process of collecting those names albeit, slowly.

The following websites have also been extremely helpful and provide so much  information related to the mutiny:

I am hoping to continually update the lists and am grateful to anyone who can provide more names and of course corrections as necessary.

Friday, 15 November 2013

Those Present During the Siege V-W-Y


Vanrenen (or Vanreneu), Lieut. J.A. 2nd in Command, 9th Oude Infantry, Oude Irregular Force
Vaughan, Mr.,wife and 2 children. Uncovenanted Service.
Veloso, Mr., wife and sister. Clerk, Uncovenaned Service. 
Voikins, Mr. and wife. Mr. Voikins was a personal butler to Brigadier Inglis. He died following the amputation of his leg. His wife is mentioned by Case.
Volkers, Mr. Civilian, Voluntary Cavalry.
Virtue, Mrs.
Virtue, Miss.
Virtue, J. Martiniere pupil.


Wade, G. Martinere pupil.
Wade, W. Martiniere pupil.
Wall, Mr. Master, Martiniere.
Ward, Ensign. 48th Regt. NI.
Ward, Mr. Uncovenanted Service.
Ward, Mrs., and 1 child. (They are listed in Wilson)
Warner, Lieut. Adjutant Ashton Cromwell,  7th Regt. Light Cavalry.
Walsh, H. Martiniere pupil.
Walsh, John. Martiniere pupil.
Waterman, Capt. 13th Regt. NI. Innes Post.
Watkins, R. Martiniere pupil.
Watson, Sergeant-Major, and wife. Orr's Corp of Police. Killed in the same attack that killed Mr. Ommanney. Mr. Watson died, but the shot which killed Mr. Ommanney, never touched him.
Watson, Lieut., and wife. 2nd in Command, 7th Oude Irregular Infantry,Oude Irregular Force.
Webb, Lieut. P.C.  HM 32nd Foot. Killed at Gubbins bastion, 26th August (Joyce).
Wells, Dr. Surgeon, and wife. 48th Regt. NI.
Wells, Mr., wife and 1 child. Mr. Wells died of wounds.
Weston, Capt. Gould. 65th N.I., Oude Frontier Police.
Weston, Mr., wife and child. His son, Adolphus is mentioned in Harris as having been shot through the head on the verandah of the church on October 6th, but there is no mention of the boy dying. Mr. Weston makes a rather ignoble appearance in Mrs. Harris' account as the man who forgot the box containing the church plate and registers when the entrenchment was abandoned. (Harris, November 23rd). His wife, noted as being a "half-caste" by Mrs. Harris, was engaged by the reverend to help out in the kitchen with the washing up (Sept. 2nd).
Wharton, Mr. J. Clerk. Uncovenanted Service,Sagos' Garrison.
White, Mr. J. Sub Conductor. Bengal Commissariat and Ordanance Dept. Killed/Died of wounds 23rd August.
Wilkinson, Mrs. Died of sickness.
Williams, Mr. F., wife and child (child killed). Clerk. Uncovenanted Service,Sagos' Garrison.
Williams, Mrs., and 2 children.
Wilson, Thomas Fourness, Capt. General Staff. Deputy-Assistant Adjutant-General.
Wiltshire, Mr. Uncovenanted Service. Had previously escaped from the Duriabad mutineers and died of sickness during the siege.
Wittenbaker, Mr.(Sr.), and wife. Uncovenanted Services, Financial Garrison.
Wittenbaker, Mr. Edmund (Jr.). Uncovenated Sevice, Financial Garrison. Killed/died of wounds.
Wood, Mr. Roger, wife and 3 children (1 child dead). Sub Conductor. Bengal Commissariat and Ordanance Dept. Killed/Died of wounds, 19th August.
Worsley, Ensign. 71st Regt. NI.
Wrangle, Samuel. Martiniere pupil. Senior boy.


Yerbury, Mr., wife and 2 children. Commisariat Department.


Those Present During the Siege S-T


Sago, Mrs.
Sahu, R.K. Martiniere College.
Sampson, Private. Wounded at Chinhat (Rees).
Sanson, Mrs. Anna. Mother-in-law of William Marshall. Died on the 24th of October.
Sanders, Capt. 41st Regt.N.I., Sander's Post (Financial Garrison).
Sangster, Capt., wife and 2 children. Uncovenanted Services.
Sangster, Miss.
Sangster, J. Martiniere pupil.
Sarle, Mr. Uncovenated Service. (Mentioned in Wilson).
Savaille (or Saville), Miss.
Schilling, Mr. G., and sister. Principal, Martiniere College.
Schmidt, Mr. R. According to Rees, Mr. Schmidt's grandfather was German, but he was born in India.  He died during the siege.
Scott, Dr. Surgeon, wife and 1 child (dead). HM 32nd Foot.
Sequera, Mr. J. (Snr), wife and sister. Uncovenanted Service, Invalids. Mr. Sequera and his wife both died during the siege. His sister survived.
Sequera, Mr. Edward (or Edwin). Killed/Died of wounds. "who had distinguished himself at Chinhut..He was more fortunate than others, for he expired in the bosom of his family, was carried to the grave by friends and buried alone, for on that day (August 29th) his was the only death that took place." (Rees) He had been shot in the breast.
Sequera, Mrs. (Jnr). Died during the siege.
Sequera, Mr. H. Uncovenanted Service.
Sequera, Mr. C. Bhoosa Garrison.
Sewell, Lieut. 71st Regt. NI.
Sexton, Mrs.
Shepherd (or Sheppard), Capt. James Stevens.  2nd Oude Irregular Cavalry, 2nd in Command, Oude Irregular Force. Killed/Died of wounds. July 26th. "He had gone too far out…and in the darkness of the night was fired at by mistake." (Case)
Simons (or Simond), Capt. Alfred Parmenter. Artillery. Died of wounds received at Chinhut, 8th September.
Sinclair, Mr. J., and mother. Merchant.
Sinclair, Mr. Pensioner.
Singh, Aodhan. Sepoy, 1st Oudh Irregular Infantry. Carried dispatches out of the residency.
Smart, J. Martiniere pupil.
Smart, W. Martiniere pupil.
Smith, Lieut. O.L. Adjutant, 48th Regt. NI. Wounded accidentally.
Smith, Mrs., and 3 children.
Smith, Private Michael. HM 32nd Foot.
Smith, John. Martiniere pupil.
Smith, W. Martiniere pupil.
Soppit, Lieut., wife and 1 child. (Their 2 year old son died of cholera on the 3rd of July. Mrs. Soppit was only 19 years old). 4th Oude Infantry, Oude Irregular Force.
Soule, Mr. J. 
Staples, Capt. John, and wife. 7th Regt. Light Cavalry. Killed near Cawnpore, 10th June 1857.
Stevens, Capt. Charles, wife and 2 children (the baby born during the siege was stillborn, Case, July 10th). HM 32nd Foot. Killed at Chinhat.
Stevens, Miss. Daughter of Capt. Charles Stevens.
Strangeways, Capt., wife and 4 children (1 dead, Mary H. Dunbar, 17th July).
Stribling, Mr. Quarter-Master. HM 32nd Foot.
Stuart, Capt., wife and 1 child. 3rd NI.
Studdy, Ensign William Humphrey. HM 32nd Foot. Died of wounds on August 9th. He had been injured in the arm by roundshot on August 6th. The arm was amputated and he died shortly after (Case) Aged 19. Son of Major J.B. Studdy, Bengal Cavalry.
Sutton, Frederick. Martiniere pupil.
Sutton, Joseph. Martiniere pupil, senior boy.
Sullivan, Mr. Hospital Steward. HM 32nd Foot.
Swaries (or Swarris), Mr., wife and 3 children.
Syms, John. Private. Bandsman, HM 32nd Foot.  27 September 1857, he was killed by an accidental explosion. He had 2 sisters at the Residency, one married to a colour sergeant, the other to a drum major.(Joyce).  His mother, stepfather, sister and brother were killed at Cawnpore.
Symes, Mr. W. Anderson's Post.


Thaine, Lieut. 13th Regt NI. Took over Innes Post after the death of Graydon.
Thomas, 1st Lieut. Lancelot E.C.(Madras) and wife (Cordelia Ellen. She died of smallpox, 16th July). Artillery.
Thomson, Lieut. James Dugald. HM 32nd Foot. Killed at Chinhut. Son of Lt-General Alexander Thomson, CB, of Salruck, Co. Galway.
Thompson, Mr., wife and 3 children. Apothecary, Acting Asst. Surgeon. Oude Irregular Force.
Thornhill, Mr. John B., wife and 1 child. (Mary Charlotte Bensley, their daughter, died on September 1st. Assistant Commissioner, Lucknow. Mr. Thornhill died of wounds on 12th October.
Todd, Mr., wife and 1 child. Clerk. Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison.
Tulloch, Lieut. 58th N.I. Engineers Dept.
Twitcham, Mrs.

Those Present During the Siege Q-R


Queiros, Mr. Alfred.
Queiros, Edward (Jnr.) Uncovenanted Service.
Queiros, Mr. F., wife and 2 child.  Uncovenated Service.


Radcliffe, Capt.Charles Wilbraham, wife and 3 children (1 child, Ada, died of cholera). 7th Regt. Light Cavalry, commanding volunteer brigade. Killed/Died of wounds. October 1st (Case).
Raleigh, Cornet W. F.K. 7th Regt. Light Cavalry. Killed at Moodkipore, on 30th May.
Ramsey, Mr., and wife. In charge of Electric Telegraph Office. Uncovenanted Service. Mr. Ramsey is listed as killed.
Rees, Mr. L.E. of Calcutta. Innes Outpost.
Reid, George. Martinire pupil. Died of sickness during the siege.
Reilly, Mrs., and 1 child.
Rennick, Mrs.
Roberts, Mrs.
Roberts, H.J., Bandmaster. 48th Regt. N.I. Killed/died of wounds.
Roberts, George. Martiniere pupil. Senior boy. Attended Henry Lawrence on his deathbed.
Robinson, Miss.
Rodgers, Miss.
Routleff, W.J., and wife. Artillery.
Ruggles, Lieut., and wife. 41st Regt. N.I.
Rutledge, Mr., and wife. Uncovenanted Service
Ryder, Mr. Overseer. Public Works Department. Listed in Gubbins as killed/died of wounds.
Ryder, Mrs. (Sergt.). Widow of a sergeant, she was employed by Rev. Harris as nurse to Mrs. Dashwood and her baby.

Thursday, 14 November 2013

Those Present During the Siege O-P


O'Brian, Lieut. H.M. 84th Foot. Wounded.
O'Dowde (or O'Dowda),  Ensign H.C. 48th Regt. N.I.
Ogilvy, Dr.  Surgeon,  and wife. Sanitary Commissioner. Superintendent of Jails, Civil Surgeon.
Oliver, Mr. Overseer, and wife. Magazine.
Ommanney, Mr. Manaton Collingwood,  wife, Louisa,( nee Engleheat, b. ca 1814 d. 1892), and 2 daughters. Judicial Commissioner, Civil Service.  Mr. Ommanney died on the 8th July 1857. Rees:" He was quietly sitting in his chair when a cannon ball hit him on the head and scattered a portion of his brains. ." On the grave inscription, Mr. Ommanney is mourned by his wife and 6 children!  It is unclear if any of the other Ommaney children were present. The Miss Ommanney's were engaged to the Cunliffe brothers Mr. Cunliffe of the artillery (dead) and Mr. Cunliff a civilian, who died at Byram Ghat.
Orr, Capt. Adolphe, wnfe and 1 child. Assistant Commissioner of Mohumdee. Oude Military Police, Oude Irregular Force, unattached. Capt. Orr died after the evacuation of the residency.
Ouseley, Lieut. Ralph, wife, Elizabeth Anne (nee Palmer, born 1833) and 2 children, Ralph and Gore. (Wife and children dead). Quartermaster, 48th Regt. N.I. Mrs. Ouseley and 2 children,died of sickness. Mrs Ouseley died on November 14th (Case).  Harris writes on October 1st that both of the children died within ten minutes of each other. (Harris, pp 73). According to Case, Mrs. Ouseley gave birth to a baby boy during the siege born a day after Mrs. Barwell (p.144). Mrs. Ouseley was the daughter of Colonel Palmer of the 48th. Lieutenant Ouseley was the son of Major J.W.J. Ouseley of the 23rd NI and had been born in Calcutta in 1829. 
Overitt, Mr. (Sr.) Apothecary. HM 32rd Foot.
Overitt, R. (Jnr.), Apothecary Apprentice. HM 32nd Foot.
Owen, Mr. Uncovenanted Service.
Owen, Mr. Alfred.
Oxenham, William. HM 32nd Foot. He was about 32 years old, and a corporal in the 32nd Regiment of Foot,when the following deed took place on 30 June 1857 at Siege of Lucknow, for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross: "For distinguished gallantry in saving the life of Mr. Capper, of the Bengal Civil Service, by extricating him from the ruins of a Verandah which had fallen on him, Corporal Oxenham being for ten minutes exposed to a heavy fire, while doing so."


Palmer, Lieut.-Col., and 2 children (1 dead) 48th Regt. N.I. The father of Anne Ouseley, his other daughter Susanne, died of amputation, after being hit by roundshot in the leg on July 1st. She had been engaged to be married to an officer in Lucknow but died on July 3rd, aged 19. His son Charles, was the youngest of Martiniere pupils. He was attached to the battery of his brother-in-law, Lieut. Ralph Ouseley, and helped to carry ammunition and messages to the guards. Charles Palmer was the last survivor of the siege  to hold the Lucknow medal, when he died in 1940. 
Parry, Mr. (or Parey), wife and 4 children. Secretary of Delhi Bank. Uncovenanted Service.
Partridge, Dr. Assistant Surgeon. Oude Irregular Force.
Paschand, G. Martiniere pupil.
Pearce, Mr., wife and 2 children. Uncovenanted Service, Artillery.
Pedron, Mrs.
Pelling, Mrs.
Peters, Mrs.
Peters, J. Bandmaster. Killed/died of wounds.
Peuder (or Pender), Mrs., and 4 children.
Pew, Mr. (Sr.), and wife. Uncovenanted Service.
Pew, Mr.A. (Jnr), and wife and 4 children. (According to Rees there were only 2 children, and 1 died).  Uncovenanted Service.
Phillips, Mr. J.and wife. Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison.
Phillips, Mr. W., wife and 1 child. Uncovenanted Service.
Phillips, J. Martiniere pupil.
Pidgeon (or Pigeon), Mr., and wife. Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison. Mr. Pidgeon was killed.
Pigott, W. Martiniere pupil.
Pitt, Dr. and wife. Surgeon. 13th Regt. N.I. Mrs. Pitt took care of Mrs. Clarkes son until he died.
Polehampton, Rev. Henry S.tedman, and wife, Emily Augusta (nee Allnutt). Assistant Chaplain of Lucknow. Rev. Polehampton was wounded during the siege and later died of cholera on the 20th of July. His son, Henry Allnutt died as an infant in Lucknow on the 24th of January 1857 and his father lies buried with him in the residency cemetery. Emily remarried in 1859 and became the second wife of Major-General Henry Marion Durand, on August 23rd. She died in 1905.
Potter, Mr. Clerk. Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison.
Power, Capt. HM 32nd Foot. Killed/died of wounds.
Pritchard, W. Martiniere pupil.
Probett, C. Martiniere pupil.
Purcell, Mrs., and 1 child.
Purcell, J. Martiniere pupil.
Purdell, Sergeant.  HM 32nd Foot. He was responsible for sanitary improvements at the residency and was killed by a rifle ball in forehead, October, Rees.

Those Present During the Siege M-N


MacDonald, David. Martiniere pupil. Senior boy.
MacDonald, Daniel. Martiniere pupil.
Maclean, Captain Wellwood George Mowbray. 71st Regt. NI. Killed at Chinhat.
McManus, Mr. Uncovenanted Service. Killed.
Maher, Mrs. (Sergeant), and 2 children.
Mansfield, Captain. HM 32nd Foot, died of sickness.
Manton, Mrs. (Sergeant).
Marley, Mrs., and one child.
Marriot, Major and wife. Pension Paymaster. General Staff.
Marshall, Mr. William, wife and daughter.  Opium Contractor. Uncovenanted Service.  He died of wounds. 13th July. "..was shot through the face, the ball passing through his eye and coming out of the mouth…" (Rees pp 130)
Marshall, Mr. J., wife and 1 child. Supervisor, Post Office. Uncovenanted Service.
Marshall, Mrs. F., and 2 children.
Martin, Lieut.Norman Alexander. 7th Regt. Light Cavalry. Killed near Cawnpore, 10th June 1857. Aged 19.
Martin, Mr., wife and 2 children (James Arnold Burnard, Henry Burnard, both dead). Deputy Commissioner Lucknow. Civil Service.
Martin, Mr., and wife. Bandmaster, P.O. Uncovenanted Service.
Master, Lieutenant-Colonel. 7th Regt. Light Cavalry.
Mathews, G. Martiniere pupil.
Mathews, J. Martiniere pupil.
Mathews, W. Martiniere pupil.
May,  Ensign James. Procured food for Kavanagh when he was ill. He served in the Artillery as a volunteer, and made himself useful serving the guns and mortars. Assisted the Chief Artillery Officer in giving the bearings of the enemy's position with the aid of a prismatic compass, and prepared plans for the relief and capture of Lucknow. Occaisionally he was also employed in guiding the troops. (Kavanagh, p. 21). 
May, Mr. W. Uncovenanted Service, Engineers, P.O.
McArthur, C. Martiniere pupil.
McAuliffe, Mr. Uncovenanted Service. Mortally wounded in a sortie on the 29th of September.(Case). Died of wounds.
McCabe, Capt. Bernard. HM 32nd Foot. Mortallly wounded while "leading his fourth sortie" and died on 1st October.
McDonald, Dr. Surgeon. 41st Regt. NI. Died of sickness.
McDonnough, Mrs., and 2 children.
McFarlane, 2nd Lieut.. Artillery.
McGrath, Ensign. HM 84th Foot.
McGregor, Ensign. 41st Regt NI. Died of sickness.
McGrennan, Mr., and wife. Uncovenanted Service, civil dispensary.
McLean, Mr. 71st Regt. NI. Killed at Chinhat. Wounded in 2 places and cut up by the enemy. (Rees, pp 79).
McManus, Mr. Uncovenanted service. Died of wounds.
McRae Mr. (or Rae), (Pleader), and wife. Uncovenanted Service, Department of Public Works.
Mecham, Clifford, H. Lieut. Oudh Irregular Cavalry.
Medley, E. Martiniere pupil.
Medley, G. Martiniere pupil.
Meecham, Lieut. Adjutant, 7th Oude Infantry,Oude Irregular Force.
Mendes, Mr., and wife (wife dead). Uncovenanted Service.
Miller, Mrs., and 4 children.
Mitchell, Mr.
Molloy, Mrs., and 5 children.
Morgan, Mr. J.J., wife and 1 child (Robert C.J., died 19th July). Uncovenanted Service, Artillery.
Morgan, W. Uncovenanted Service, Sago's Garrison.
Morton, Mr. Quartermaster-Sergeant, wife and 2 children. 10th Oude Irregular Infantry. Listed in Gubbins who writes Mr. Morton died since the evacuation of Lucknow.
Morton (or Moreton) Mrs., and 2 children (Both children dead).


Nazareth, Mr., wife and 2 children (1 dead). Uncovenanted Service. According to Mr. Gubbins, Mr. Nazareth died of sickness.
Need, Capt.W.W.,  wife and 3 children. Merchant. He died of cholera. (July 26th, Case) or was shot through the lungs while collecting firewood (Bartrum) and died as a result.
Nepean, Miss.
Nicholls, Lewis. Martiniere pupil. Senior boy.
Nugent, Mrs.,Senior.
Nugent, Mrs., Junior.

Wednesday, 13 November 2013

Those Present During the Siege I-J


Inglis, Brigadier John, wife Julia, and 3 children (Charlie, Johnny and baby). Brigade Staff. Commanding the garrison.
Inglis, Lieut. H. 41st Regt. N.I.
Inglis, Ensign R.L. 63rd N.I. Doing duty with the 13th N.I.
Innes, Lieut. Mcleod, Engineers. Innes Post.
Ireland, Mr. G., and wife. Uncovenanted Service.
Ireland, Mr. W. Volunteer.
Isaacs, Daniel. Martiniere pupil. Senior boy.
Isaacson, W. Martiniere pupil.


James, Lieut.  General Staff.Sub-assistant, Commissary General. Killed at Chinhat.
Jermyn, Mrs. (Harris, May 26th).
Johannes, Mr., Merchant, wife and 1 child.
Johnson, Mr. Uncovenanted Service.
Jones, Mr., and wife. Uncovenanted Service.
Jones, Mr. T.E. Listed as "deserted".
Joyce, Matthew Rutland.
Joyce, Richard Christopher. Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison. Brother of M.R. Joyce. Also of Radcliffe's Horse.
Joyce, Mrs.and 1 child.

Those Present During the Siege G-H


Gabriel, Mr., and wife. Uncovenanted Service.
Gall, Major George Lawrence Herbert, and wife. 2nd Oude Irregular Cavalry, Oude Irregular Force. Major Gall was killed  carrying dispatches from Lucknow to Allahabad, 13th June, 1857.
Gamboa, Mr., and mother. Mr. Gamboa is listed as "deserted".
Gardner, Miss.
Garland, Mr. R. Extra Assistant Commissioner, wife and 1 child. Uncovenanted Service.
Garrett, Mr., wife and 2 children.
Germon, Capt., and wife, Maria. 13th Regt. N.I., Germon's Post, Judicial Garrison.
Giddings, Mr., Paymaster., and wife. HM 32nd Foot.
Gordon, Mr. J., wife Sophia, 2 children, (1 child, Julia, died during the siege.) Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison.
Graham, Lieut. James, wife and 2 children (both dead). 1st Oude Irregular Cavalry, Officiating Adjutant, Oude Irregular Force.  Lieut. Graham is reported as having committed suicide "in a fit of temporary insanity" on the 5th of September (ref."The Defence of Lucknow" by A Staff Officer pp 149). His daughters,  Fanny Jane died 2nd September and Georgiana M. Louisa died 27th September. 
Graham, Lieut. Adjutant, 3rd Oude Irregular Cavalry, Oude Irregular Force.
Grant, Lieut., Aldourie Patrick. 71st Regt. N.I. Killed in Cantonments on 30th of May.
Grant, Lieut. Gregor, wife and 2 children (wife and 1 child dead). 5th Oude Irregular Infantry. 2nd in Command, Oude Irregular Force. Grants Bastion. He died of wounds - 20th July, his hand was shattered by a hand grenade that went off prematurely, he died a few days later. (Joyce, 93).  His wife and one daughter ied of cholera. The other daughter was left in the care of the Gubbins'. (Joyce, p. 93).
Grant, Sergeant, and wife.
Graves, Lieut., 41st Regt. N.I. Died of sickness.
Gray, Brigadier. Commander, Oude Irregular Force.
Green, Capt., and wife (wife died of sickness). 48th Regt. N.I.
Green, Ensign G.W.13th Regt. N.I. Died of sickness.
Greenhow, Dr. Assistant-Surgeon. Oude Irregular Force.
Griffiths, Mrs. Sergeant,  and 3 children.
Gruber, Richard. Martiniere pupil. One of the boys to attend Henry Lawrence on his deathbed.
Gubbins, Mr. Martin Richard, Financial Commissioner, and wife. Civil Service, financial secretary of Oude. Gubbin's Post.


Hadow, Mr. Surgeon. Oude Irregular Force/5th Oude infantry (Rees).
Hale, Mrs. Frances Ellen. Wife of G.H. Hale, 2nd Oude Irregular Infantry. In the grave list of Hilton: the wife and daughter of Lieut. Adjt. 2nd Oude Irregular Infantry. George Herbert Hale ( Kate Caroline Sophia) are listed as died on 30th June 1857. According to Mrs. Bartrum, Mrs. Hale died on the 29th of June, of cholera, after only 3 hours of illness. Her daughter, Kate, was given over to the care of Major and  Mrs. Marriot, but she died "just before Havelock entered Lucknow." (Bartrum, pp 25-26). On the family gravestone, Frances is noted to be 20 years old at the time of her death.
Halford, Col. William Hamilton, wife and daughter. 71st Regt. NI.  Col. Halford died of sickness. July 27th. "Col. Halford died of complete break-up, I believe". (Case, pp 124).  According to Rees, he died of a "carbuncle in his back" (pp 173).
Hamilton, Mr. W., wife and 3 children (2 children dead).
Hampton, Miss.
Handscombe, Brigadier Isaac Henley. Brigade Staff. Commanding Oude Brigade. Killed in cantonments on May 30th.
Harding, Lieut. General Staff. Oude Irregular Force, Deputy Asst.Quarter Master General. Listed in Gubbins as since died at sea.
Hardingham, Mr. F. and mother. Uncovenated Service.
Harmer, Lieut. H.M. 32nd Foot. Wounded. Leg broken. Roundshot entered the Residency building on the 18th of July and struck the breakfast table where the officers were sitting. A piece of the table broke off and injured Harmer. (Joyce, p. 86)
Harris, Rev. James P., and wife, Georgina. Assistant Chaplain of Lucknow.
Hawes, Capt. W. H. 6th Oude Irregular Infantry, Oude Irregular Force.
Hay, Lieut. 48th Regt. N.I.
Hayes, Captain Fletcher,wife and 1 child. General Staff, Military Secretary. Captain Hayes was killed near Mynapoory.
Headly, Capt. Royal Artillery. Killed, 25th September 1857.
Hearsey, Captain W., and wife. Oude M. Pol., Oude Irregular Force,unattached.
Hearsey, Ensign J. Volunteer Cavalry.
Hely (or Haly), Forbes A. Veterinary Surgeon. 7th Regt. Light Cavalry. Killed/died of wounds.
Hembro, Mr., wife and 3 children. Ucovenanted Service.
Hernon, Mrs., and 4 children.
Hersham, Mrs., and child (Child dead). Mrs. Hersham is mentioned in Mrs. Harris' diary (August 9th).
Hewitt, Ensign. 41st Regt. N.I.
Higgins, Mr., Apothecary, wife (died of sickness) and 2 sisters. H.M. 32nd Foot.
Hill, Mr. James, Merchant.
Hilton, Mr. William, wife and 2 children. Master, Martiniere.
Hilton, Edward. Martiniere pupil. Senior boy. Son of Mr. William Hilton.
Hoff, Mr. Edward R. Hall, and wife. Uncovenanted Service, Sagos Garrison.
Holden, J. Martiniere pupil.
Holt, J. Martiniere pupil.
Horan, Mrs., and 3 children. In the Defence of Lucknow by a  Staff Officer:  Mrs. Horan and all her children were alive and survived the siege.. In Gubbins, Mrs. Horan is listed as killed/died of wounds.
Hornby, John. Martiniere pupil, senior boy.
Hornley, J. Martniere pupil.
Howard, Mr. B.
Hughes, Capt. E.J. 4th Oude Irregular Infantry, Oude Irregular Force. Killed/Died of wounds. September 28th. (Case pp. 212)
Hutton, Mr. Uncovenanted Service.
Huxham, Lieut., wife and child (the child, Ellen Frances, died 9th August). 48th Regt. N.I.
Hyde, Mr., Apothecary, wife and 2 children.

Tuesday, 12 November 2013

Those Present During the Siege E-F


Edgehill, Capt., wife and 1 child. General Staff, officiating.
Edmonstone, Lieut.H.M. 32nd Foot
Eldridge, Riding Master, wife and 2 children (1 dead). 7th Regt. Light Cavalry. "15th (June).—A most sad event occurred to-day. The sergeant-major of the 7th Cavalry had a quarrel with the riding-master Eldridge, upon some very trifling matter, when the former, Keogh, drew his pistol and shot the latter." (Inglis, pp. 33)
June 19th - "Mrs.Eldridge has 2 children, a poor girl of 13 who is half-witted and a fine little boy of 6 years old.." Her daughter had her leg taken off by roundshot and died (Harris pp 40).
Elliot, Mrs.
Ereth, Mr. T.W. Railway Contractor, and wife. Killed/Died of wounds 2nd July 1857. Son-in-law of Mr. Parry, Manager of Delhi Bank. (Kavanagh, p. 58)
Evans, Capt. Henry Lloyd. 17th Bombay N.I. Commanded the battery behind the church yard. His wife and 2 children were killed at Cawnpore (Joyce, p. 238)
Evans, Mrs., dead.
Ewart, Mr., Clerk. Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison.


Farquhar, Lieut. 7th Regt.Light Cavalry, wounded at Chinhat.
Farquaharson, Lieut. Charles Martin. 48th Regt. N.I. Killed/Died of wounds, 1st June 1857
Fayrer, Dr. Assistant Surgeon, Joseph, wife, Bethia Mary, and child, Robert Andrew. Residency Surgeon, Civil Surgeon. His wife was the daughter of Brigadier General Andrew Spens. They married at the cantonment church in Lucknow, 4th October 1855. Fayrer's son was born at his grandfather's house in the cantonment, Lucknow, on 27th of June 1856..(Fayrer, p. 101).
Fayrer, Mr. Richard. Gentleman Volunteer, Oude Irregular Force. Brother of Dr. Fayrer. Killed at Mynpoory, 1st June 1857, aged 23. The same attack killed  Adjutant Barbor and Captain Hayes.
Fernandes, Mr. Uncovenanted Service.
Fitzgerald, Mrs., and 1 child.
Fitzgerald, W.E., wife and 1 child (.Justitia F. Died 18th Aug). Uncovenanted Service.
Fitzgerald, Mrs. Mother of W.E. Fitzgerald.
Fletcher, Lieut. 48th Regt.NI
Forbes, Capt. H., wife and 3 children (2 dead). 1st Oude IrregularCavalry, Oude Irregular Force.
Forbes, Mr., and mother. Uncovenanted Service.
Ford. Drummer.
Forder, Mr. W. Postmaster. Post Office Garrison.
Forester, Mr. Clerk.
Foster, Lieut. HM 32nd Foot.
Francis, Major Robert Bransby. Commanded  Muchee Bawan.  Mortally wounded on 7th July, died of wounds (Case, pp 93-94). Both his legs had been blown off by round shot. He died on the 8th of July.
Francis, Capt. 13th Regt. NI.
French, Mr. Uncovenanted Service.
Fullerton, Lieut. James, wife and son (Elphinstone, died 7th Aug). 44th NI. 15th September: "He walked out of the hospital window in the upper storey, whether in sleep or delirium is not known. He was taken up insensible and never spoke again." (Harris, pp 63-64) Son of Lord Fullerton. Age 27.
Fulton, CaptainGeorge William-Wright.   Engineers.Garrison Engineer. Killed, shot in the head. His wife Sophia Isabella and 5 children were in Simla during the mutiny. 

Monday, 11 November 2013

Those Present During the Siege C-D


Cameron, Mr. Of Allahabad. Died of sickness.
Cameron, Mr. R. of Calcutta. Died of sickness.
Campagnac, Mr. C., wife and daughter. Uncovenanted Service.
Campagnac, Lieut., wife and daughter. Late King's Services.
Campbell, C.W. Lieut.. 71st Regt. N.I.
Campbell, canteen sergeant, HM 32nd Foot, mentioned in Inglis, pp.114. Killed.
Campbell, W. Ensign. 71st Regt. N.I.
Campbell, Mr. Surgeon. 7th Regt, Light Cavalry. In the list of Rees, he was killed.
Cane, Mrs., and 3 children.
Capper, Mr. Deputy Commissioner,Mullaon. Civil Service, wounded.
Carlow, A. Martinere pupil.
Carnegie, Capt. Brigade Staff, Provost Marshall.
Case, Lieut-Col. William and wife, Adelaide. HM 32nd Foot. He was killed at Chinhat.
Casey, Mr.,wife and 5 children (2 dead). Uncovenanted Service, Department of Public Works. He was wounded in the arm on 2nd July while driving stray cattle out of the entrenchment. He died on the 2nd of August. Not long before his youngest son died of "a decline" and his eldest was killed by a shell, "his head was smashed and he fell across his mother.." The daughter, Lavinia born on 27th March 1853, was not quite four and a half and was wounded in both feet. (She later became a nun, named Mother Agnes (Joyce, p. 142, p. 360).
Catania, Mr. C. Volunteer.
Catania, Mr. T., and mother. Uncovenanted Services.
Cawood, J. Martinere Pupil.
Chambers, Lieut. Adjutant. 13th Regt. N.I. Wounded in Cantonments on 30th May.
Charlton, Ensign. H.M. 32nd Foot. Wounded. Reported as being shot in the head (Case pp. 100) but recovered.
Chick, Mr., wife and 2 children (1 child dead). Late Sub-Editor, "Central Star" Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison.
Chrestien, Mr., and wife. Uncovenanted Service.
Clancey, Mrs., and 2 children.
Clancey, Mr. Thomas John. Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison. Listed in Gubbins as Killed/Died of wounds. 1st July 1857.
Clarke, Stanley, Lieut., and wife. 1st Oude Infantry, Oude Irregular Force.
Clarke, Mrs. Elizabeth and 2 children (all dead). Refugee from Gondah, wife of Lieut. Edgar Clarke Assistant Commissioner. Mrs. Clark died of smallpox. July 31st. (Case pp 126). According to Bartrum, she died on the 30th of July and her baby the next day.Her baby was baptisedby Rev. Harris,and named Elizabeth as her mother had not named her before falling ill. Her son Matthew Edgar, aged 1 year and 9 months did not survive the siege.
Clarke, Mrs. Loungeville.
Clarke, William. Martinere pupil.
Clarke, Miss.
Clery, Lieut. H.M. 32nd Foot, Sago's Garrison.
Collins, Mr. R.M., and wife.  Extra Assistant, Poorwah. Mrs. Collins died of sickness.
Collins, Mr. W.  Assistant to Mr. Deprat.
Collins, J. Martinere pupil.
Connell, Mrs and 1 child. It is not sure if this is the same child, John Connell who died on the 4th of November 1857, according to Hilton. He is listed as the son of A. Connell, Overseer.
Cooke, Lieut. HM. 32nd Foot.Cooke, Mrs.. and 4 children (1 dead).Cooney (or Cuney), Private William. HM 32nd Foot. It is noted that Private Cooney was Irish.
Couper, George , wife and 3 children (1 born during the siege). Secretary to Commander in Chief, Chief Commissioner. Civil Service. According to Kavanagh, Mr. Couper starved himself for his family when food was scarce (p. 45, Kavanagh)
Coulturan, G. Martiniere pupil.
Court, Mrs. (Sergt), and 2 children.
Crabb, Mr. Shopkeeper or Tradesman. Uncovenanted Service. Died of wounds.
Crank, Mr. Assistant Principal, Martiniere.
Creed, E. Martiniere pupil.
Creed, G. Martiniere pupil.
Crowly, T. Bandsman. King's Service. Died.
Cubbit, Lieut. 13th NI. Wounded.
Cunliffe, Foster John, 2nd Lieut.  Artillery. Died of sickness, 22nd September.
Cunliffe, Mrs and 3 children.
Curson, G. Martiniere pupil.
Curtain, Band Sergeant. 41st N.I. Listed as dead.
Curtain, Mrs., and 3 children.
Curwan, Mrs., and 1 child.


Dacosta, Mrs.
Dallicott, Mr.  Hospital Apprentice. HM 32nd Foot. Killed.
Darby, Mr. Edmund Assistant Surgeon. 10th Oude Infantry, Oude Irregular Force. Wounded by a shell on the 27th of October 1857.  His wife Mary and newborn child were killed at Cawnpore. According to Joyce, Dr. Darby died of wounds at the Dilkusha Park.Darrah (or Darah), Lieut., wife and 2 children. 41st Regt N.I.
Dashwood, Lieut.  Alexander J., wife and 2 children (1 dead). 48th Regt N.I.  1 child, Herbert Garrett died during the siege, while the other, Arthur Frederick was born during the siege and christened on the 27th of September. 
Dashwood, Ensign Charles Keith. 18th NI. Died of infection after the evacuation of the Residency on 22nd November 1857, following amputation of both legs after being hit by roundshot while sketching in the Residency grounds. Buried at Dilkusha, aged 19.
Deprat, Monsieur F. Merchant. Died of infection following a bullet wound. Buried in the same grave as Lieut. Cunliffe.
Dedman, family. The Dedmans are mentioned in both Inglis (August 20th) and Case (pp.164). According to Inglis, the father had  been killed and a boy died of cholera. There would appear to have been more children as Case describes the death as "another child of the poor Dedmans was siezed with cholera this morning and not expected to live…" However as both Inglis and Case mention them, it is only fair that they appear here. I am inclined to believe that they are the same family appearing Ree's list, as Dudman and they are mentioned seperately. 
Dawling, Private William. HM 32nd Foot. 
Dawson, HM 32nd Foot.Des Crosses, E. Martiniere pupil.De Verinne, Monsieur. Superintendent, Martiniere Estate.
D'Ravara (or Dera Vera), Mr. A., wife. and 2 children. Steward, Martiniere. I am not sure if this is not the same person as De Verinne (who is mentioned in Wilson).
D'Ravera, J. Martiniere pupil.
De Rozario, Mrs.
Dias, Mr. M., and wife. Uncovenanted Service.
Dickson, Miss Caroline. Sister of Adelaide Case.
Dillen, J. Martiniere pupil.
Dinning, Capt. 71st Regt., N.I.Dodd, Mr. Charles. Master, Martiniere.
Donnithorne, Mr., wife and 2 children (1 dead). Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison.
Dorin, Mrs. Killed on July 22nd. Shot through the head while sitting in her room at Mr. Gubbins' house. (Case, pp 106). She was a refugee from Seetapore.
Dorrett, Mr. R. Uncovenanted Service, Financial Garrison.
Dowling, William, Private. HM 32nd Foot. Received the Victoria Cross. For distinguished gallantry on the 4th of July, 1857, in going out with two other men, since dead, and spiking two of the Enemy's guns. He killed a Soubadar of the Enemy by one of the guns. Also, for distinguished gallantry on the 9th of the same month, in going out again with three men, since dead, to spike one of the Enemy's guns. He had to retire, the spike being too small, but was exposed to the same danger. Also, for distinguished bravery, on the 27th of September, 1857, in spiking an 18-pounder gun during a Sortie, he being at the same time under a most heavy fire from the Enemy.
Drummond, G. Martiniere pupil.
Dubois, Mr. H. and wife. Uncovenanted Service.
Dubois, Mrs. (senior).
Dudman (possibly Dedman), Mr. E., wife, 3 children (2 dead) and mother of Mr. Dudman. Uncovenanted Service. Rees does not mention that Mr. Dudman is dead.
Duffy (or Duff), Mrs., and 1 child.Duhan, Mr. Uncovenanted Service, Volunteer.

Those Present During the Siege A-B


Abbott, Mrs and 1 child.
Adeodatus, Father: Roman Catholic priest. Father Adeodatus of Perugia (Joyce, p. 135). He was 68 years old and had been in India continuously since 1822. Gout caused him to bedridden during the siege. He had built the Church of St. Mary in Lucknow. He wanted to be buried in Lucknow.
Aitkin, Robert Hope Moncrieff, Lieut, Quartermaster:13th Regt. N.I. and wife.  Born 6 February 1826 – Died:18 September 1887, received the VC and a CB.
Alexander, Clare, 1st Lieut. Artillery, Killed/Died of wounds. September 28th (Case pp 212)
Alexander, J. 2nd Lieut., wounded.
Alnutt, Mr. C.D., BankClerk, wife, Ann and 4children, (1 child died during the siege, Louisa Ellen, on 28th Aug.). Uncovenanted Service.
Alone, Mr. Alfred and his sister. Uncovenanted Service, Innes Outpost.
Alone Mr. B.and his mother. Uncovenanted Service, Innes Outpost.
Anderson, Major J.  General Staff. Chief Engineer. Died of sickness on 12th August.
Anderson, Capt. R.P. Assistant Comissioner (ref. Gubbins). His wife, Henrietta and 1 child died during the siege. Henrietta, aged 30 died on the 17th of August 1857, and her daughter, Hilda Mary, aged 7 months died on the 21st of August 1857, "from the sheer want of proper nourishment". (grave stone in Calcutta). Their son survived the siege.
Anderson, Lieut. J.C. Engineers, officiating.
Anderson, Mrs.
Anthony, Mr. David. Uncovenanted Service, Financial Garrison.
Apthorp, Major , wife and 1 child (dead). 41st Regt. N.I.
Aratoon, Carapiet. Martiniere pupil. Died of illness.
Aratoon, David. Martiniere pupil, senior boy.
Aratoon, M. Martinere pupil.
Archer, Mr. George. Master, Martiniere and wife.
Arnow (or Arno), Miss Rebecca E. Died on 7th October 1857 from wounds sustained by the exploding of a shell.
Arthur, Lieut. Leonard Augustus.7th Regt. Light Cavalry. Killed/Died of wounds on19th of July (Case pp.109). He was shot through the eye while aiming at an enemy, at the Cawnpore battery.


Bailey, Mr. G. Innes Outpost. He was the son of a native Christian who had been a captain in the service of the King of Oudh. (p. 92, Joyce). Wounded during the siege by a musket ball that smashed his lower jaw and passed out through his neck. He survived.
Bailey, George. Martinere pupil.
Ball, Mrs. (1 child)
Balley (or Bally) Mrs. (2 children)
Banks, Major John Sherbrooke, Provincial Chief Commissioner. Killed/Died of Wounds, shot in the head - 21st July 1857,  aged 46. Son of Samuel and Lucinda. Husband of Elizabeth Fearon, present at the siege, with 1 child.
Baptist, Adam. Volunteer, wounded.
Baptist, Ellis. Volunteer.
Baptist, Peter. Volunteer.
Barbor, Mrs. Widow of Adjutant Adjutant George Douglas. 2nd Oude Irregular Cavalry, Oude Irregular Force. Killed at Mynpoory, 1st June 1857, before the commencement of the siege.
Barfoot, Mrs.
Barker, M. Martinere pupil.
Barlow, Capt. George Pratt and wife. Oude Irregular Force. He died of sickness. August 24th.
Barnard, Rev.  Roman Catholic priest.
Barnett, Mrs.
Barrett, Mr., wife and 3 children, (1 child dead).  Uncovenanted service. He died of sickness. 
Barry, Mr. Uncovenanted service.
Barsotelli, Signor, of Calcutta. He had disposed of a shipment of alabasters at Lucknow from Florence before the siege (Joyce, p. 67)
Bartrum, Mrs. Kate and 1 child. Widow of  Robert Henry Bartrum, Bengal Medical Service. Her son Robert, died the day before they were to board a ship in Calcutta that was to take them back to England. Assistant-Surgeon Robert Henry Bartrum - killed in action at Lucknow - 26th September 1857 Aged 26. Serving with the 3rd Oude Irregular Infantry. (Mrs. Bartrum was joined by 2 of her husband's servants after Havelock's relief).
Barwell, Lieut. Charles, wife and 1 child. Brigade Staff. Town and fort adjutant, officiating major of brigade. Cousin to Mrs. Harris (Harris, footnotes, pp 5.). His wife Emily gave birth their son Percy Andrew, during the siege. (Harris, Sept. 6th, pp. 51)
Bassano, Capt. H.M. 32nd Foot. Wounded at Chinhat.
Bates, Mr. A. Uncovenanted service and wife.
Baxter, Mr. Conductor, Ordanance Department, and wife. Uncovenanted Service. Killed/died of wounds.
Baxter, R.H. Martiniere pupil.
Beale, Mr. Uncovenanted Service. Killed/Died of wounds.  Noted in Inglis as an "overseer of roads." According to Rees he was shot on July 11th wounded in the back from a a rifle shot" and died a week later. His little daughter had died earlier. (Rees pp 134)
Beale, Mrs. Wife of Mr. Beale. According to Wilson, there is a Mrs. Beale listed, with no children. However, Julia Inglis refers to a Mrs. Beale, as being the woman who had appealled to her for milk for her baby. (Inglis, 14th August) Mrs. Beale told Mrs. Inglis she had lost three children and wanted the baby to survive the siege. However, according to the list by Rees, Mrs. Beale and 2 children died.
Bell, Mr. Overseer, wife  and1 child. Rees mentions that Bell's mother-in-law died during the siege but does not mention her name.
Benson, Mr. and wife (1 child, dead.) Deputy Commissioner, Durriabad  Civil Service.
Best, Mr.,  and wife (1child, dead).Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison.
Bickers, Mr., wife and 3 children. Uncovenanted Service. Wounded, shot in the jaw.
Birch, Capt. F.W. Brigade Staff. ADC to Inglis, 71st. Wounded. 
Birch, Mr. Henry Holwell, Uncovenanted Services.
Birch, Miss E.(Elizabeth) E. Sister of  H.H. Birch.
Birch, Lieut. 59th N.I. and wife. He was shot and killed by accident.
Bird, Dr. Assistant Surgeon.
Bird, Major,and wife, 2 children, (1 dead). 48th Regt., N.I.
Blaney, Mr. P. Uncovenanted Services, Sago's Garrison.
Blaney, Mr. C. and wife.Uncovenanted Service, Bhoosa Garrison.
Blaney, Mr. Nephew of C. Blaney.
Blenman, Mr. and his mother. Uncovenanted Service.
Blunt (or Blund), Mr. Thriepland, Clerk, and wife. Uncovenanted Service, Judicial Garrison.
Blythe, Mr. and wife (1 child, dead).  Uncovenanted Service.
Boileau, Dr. Mrs. Widow of Mr. Boileau, Civil Service.4 children, 1 dead -Georgiana E. Died 13th Sept. 1857.
Boileau, Capt. T.F., wife and 3 children. 7th Regt. Light Cavalry, 2nd in Command, Volunteer Corps.
Bonham, 2nd Lieut. Artillery. Wounded 3 times.
Boulderson, Mr. Assistant Commissioner, Lucknow. Civil Service.Wounded.
Bowhear, Miss
Boyd, Mr. Assistant Surgeon. H.M. 32nd Foot.
Brackenbury, Lieut. H.M. 32nd Foot. Killed at Chinhat.
Brandoff, Mrs.
Brett, Mrs. (1 child, dead).
Brown, Mr.  C., Clerk. Uncovenanted Service, Sagos' Garrison. Killed/died of wounds.
Brown, C.(or G.)  Lieut. HM 32nd Foot. Killed.
Brown, Mr. J., Clerk. Uncovenanted Service, Anderson's Garrison. Killed/died of wounds.
Brown, Mr. W. and wife. Uncovenanted Service. Wounded.
Brown, Apothecarys Apprentice. HM 32nd Foot.
Browne, Capt. Henry George Gore, HM 32nd Foot. He was 26 years old,  when the following deed took place on 21 August 1857 during the Siege of Lucknow for which he was awarded the VC: he led a sortie at great personal risk, for the purpose of spiking two heavy guns, which were doing considerable damage, to the defences. It appears from the statements of the non-commissioned officers and men who accompanied Captain Browne on the occasion, that he was the first person who entered the Battery, which consisted of the two guns in question, protected by high pallisades, the embrasures being closed with sliding shutters. On reaching the Battery, Captain Browne removed the shutters, and jumped into the Battery. The result was, that the guns were spiked, and it is supposed that about one hundred of the enemy were killed.
Browne Mr. Oswin and wife. Uncovenanted Services. He died of sickness.
Browne, Miss.
Bruere, Major C.F., wife and 4 children. 13th Regt. NI. Major Bruere died of wounds.
Burmester, Capt. Henry Garden. 48th Regt. N.I. Killed in the district, 1st June 1857
Burnett, Mrs.  and 1 child.
Burns, Lieut. G. 10th Oude Irregular Infantry. Died after the evacuation of  Lucknow.
Bryce (or Brice), 2nd Lieut. Artillery. Wounded before, died of sickness.
Brydon, Mr. Surgeon, wife and 2 children. This is the same Dr. Brydon who survived the retreat from Kabul. He was wounded during the siege.
Bryson, Mr. Alexander and wife. Uncovenanted Service, Sagos Garrison. He was killed 9th of July 1857, while "singly building, under a deadly fire, a barricade for the safety of his post, a duty he volunteered to perform."
Bryson, Alfred Henley. Obituary: On the evening of Sunday 23 November 1913 there passed away Mr Alfred Henly Bryson at Adelaide's Bay-side suburb of Glenelg. His expiring peacefully in his sleep at the age of 64 signalled the end of a fascinating story and a link with a significant event in military history - one that had begun at the siege of Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny of 1857-59. As a small boy of only eight years of age Alfred Bryson had actively participated in the defence of Lucknow from 29 June to 22 November 1857. He later received, albeit 53 years after the event, the Indian Mutiny Medal and clasp 'Defence of Lucknow'! This was rare distinction indeed.;dn=845069387212493;res=IELHSS)
Bushell, Henry. HM 32nd Foot. Died 22nd July (

Monday, 7 October 2013

Sentiments and other Mutinies

The Siege of Lucknow is by far, one of the most documented events of its time. A flurry of journals, books, stories, articles, poems, music and even a play enthralled  the Victorian public with their tales of hardship, horror and above all a morally Christian heroism, which was perfectly fitting for their times. A hero was not just brave, his morals needed to be pure. It is where heroes like Henry Lawrence triumph and others fail.

Henry Lawrence, General Hewitt and General Sir Hugh Wheeler      

Henry Lawrence was undoubtedly a gifted administrator. He had the ability to move freely at all levels of society, something which many colonials of their time (and their wives, no less) were unable, or unwilling, to do.   He followed his intuition, rationally assessed the situation he was facing and made the necessary preparations, thus, in effect, saving the Lucknow garrison from starvation and ultimate defeat. It is hard to see how the actions of this sensitive and above incredibly sensible man could be construed as heroic, when it seems, from our modern point of view, it is nothing more than anyone else in his shoes would have done. Yet what sets Henry Lawrence apart from his contemporaries, like General Wheeler of Cawnpore, or General Hewitt at Meerut, is when faced with an impossible situation, they are remembered for what they did not do. 

Henry Lawrence was not the only leader faced with a crisis in 1857. From Meerut to Cawnpore, from Jahnsi to Gwailor, Seetpore to Allahabad, the Indian countryside was in flames, burning under the might of a furious population. The revolt spread swiftly - not everyone had the time to plan and prepare as Henry Lawrence had done, however had others been following the signs and portents, as Henry Lawrence had done, the damage might have been better controlled.


At the extreme end of the scale, in Meerut, where the mutiny originally broke out on the 10th of May, the station’s commander did nothing at all to counteract the initial outbreak. As his station burned and the Christian community was hunted down and murdered, he, in the words of Fitchett,
 “..had neither the energy or the resolution. He had drowsed and nodded his way through some fifty years of routine service, rising by mere seniority. He was now old, obese, indolent and notoriously incapable. He had agreeable manners and a soothing habit of ignoring the disagreeable. Lord Melbourne’s favourite question, “Why can’t you leave it alone?” represented General Hewitt’s intellect…In General Hewitt’s case, the familiar fable of an army of lions commanded by an ass, was translated into history once more.” (Fitchett, The Tale of the Great Mutiny, 1904, p. 24) 
General Hewitt failed not only as a commander, but as a man -an unpardonable sin.  Comparatively speaking, Meerut was the station in the Bengal Presidency where the mutiny was most likely to fail  as it had some 2,028 Europeans against 2,057 natives soldiers– but Meerut did not have a Henry Lawrence, they had what many stations had in 1857, a General Hewitt.
In his defence, Hewitt said,
 “As soon as the alarm was given, the artillery, carabineers, and 60th Rifles were got under arms, but by the time we reached the native parade ground, it was too dark to act with efficiency in that direction; consequently the troops were retired to the north of the nullah, to cover the barracks and officers lines of the artillery carabineers and 60th Rifles, which were, with the exception of one house preserved!”
What it came down to finally, was a matter of red tape. Hewitt explained that while he was responsible for the district, Archdale Wilson was in fact commanding the station. However, Wilson believed he was under the directions of Hewitt, and since Hewitt ordered nothing, he, in consequence did nothing. Hewitt’s masterly inactivity was complete; he did not even send a warning to the city the mutineers were heading to next: Delhi was taken completely by surprise. 

Destruction of  bungalow at Meerut
Illustrated London News, 1857

If Meerut had been commanded by young and clever commander, could the course of the mutiny have been changed? Perhaps it could have been stayed for a while but most likely, it would have come to an outbreak in the end anyway. Lord Roberts (of Khandahar fame) believed that a pursuit of the mutineers by the Meerut force would have been futile and nothing that the commanders could do would ultimately have saved Delhi.

Another spectacular failure during the Mutiny was Cawnpore (Kanpur). The commander at Cawnpore was General Sir Hugh Wheeler. At 75, he was no longer fighting fit 

 “(and a man) no matter how brave, in whose veins ran the chill and thin blood of old age, was tragically handicapped in a crisis so fierce.” (Fitchett, p. 86).  
General Wheeler, unlike Hewitt, did plenty. He set up his defences, albeit inadequate and severely lacking in common sense. Instead of choosing the Cawnpore magazine as the place to make his last stand, where he would at least have had strong buildings, a huge supply of guns and ammunition and 3 acres of space to shelter  the civilian population, he chose a patch of ground 6 miles away, with practically no water supply. Around it he built a thin wall of dirt and into it, he crowded the British population of Cawnpore. The outcome was predictably disastrous.

Plan of the entrenchment at Cawnpore

Where did General Wheeler fail? Unkindly, many of his contemporaries believed it was his close associations with “natives” that was his downfall -  his wife was a Hindu. In reality, he took too many things for granted. Like many other commanders at the time, General Wheeler did not believe the entire force would mutiny and in the same effect, he also believed that if they did, they would march immediately to enforce their brethren in Delhi. He also had implicit faith in Nana Sahib. Of course, he wasn’t the only one – the Nana had convinced many in Cawnpore of his fidelity and loyalty to the British, but it was Wheeler who was in charge. After 21 days of siege and catastrophic losses, the British at Cawnpore surrendered to the Nana Sahib, who had proved himself to be as vengeful an opponent as they come.  His name became synonymous with the ultimate massacre of the garrison at the Satichaura Ghat, and the infamous slaughter at the Bibighar but it is General Wheeler who has been held responsible for all history.
Sir Hugh Wheeler
However, General Wheeler has been described variously as heroic, and as a man, gallant. His main problem was not his leadership, it was argued, but that he was encumbered with some 700 hundred civilians, many of whom were the wives and children of the men of the 32nd, stationed at Lucknow.  He only had 300 fighting men to face down a highly trained army of thousands. So was the downfall of Cawnpore really his fault alone? Had he been without the civilians, as outnumbered as he was, it is unlikely he would have fared any better. However, the garrison of Cawnpore could have made a noble last stand and would have gone into the Victorian mind as valiant men grimly facing adversity to the bitter end comparable perhaps to the last stand at Gandamak. Their ending was finally only horrifically tragic and served to feed the public’s growing lust for macabre tales of the mutiny.

Remains of the Wheeler's Entrenchment
Felice Beato

Cawnpore Memorial Well
Samuel Bourne, 1860
The Well and Monument, Slaughter House, Cawnpore, 1858Murray Collection: Views in Delhi, Cawnpore, Allahabad and Benares'  Dr. John Murray.

While the mutiny played out in the midst of generals, in battles hard fought, lost and won, another siege has gone wholly unnoticed. 

The Siege of Arrah

Sketch of the fortified house at Arrah
The city of Arrah (Ara) is situated in Bhojpur district in the state of Bihar, India. It is the district headquarters of Bhojpur district, located near the confluence of the Ganges and Sone rivers, some 24 mi. from Danapur and 36 miles from Patna.(Wikipedia). It is an ancient city that was even known in Greek geographical works, but in 1857, it was hardly noticed.
The Siege of Arrah commenced on the 25th of July and lasted until the 3rd of August – comparatively short and somewhat unspectacular: no great generals were present here, no great garrison of fighting men. The entire defending party consisted of 16 civilians, 50 Sikhs and three servants. They were besieged by the forces of three revolted native regiments, led by a Zemindar named Kur Singh. Vastly outnumbered, the besieged took up their position in the house of Mr. Boyle, the district engineer to the railway company. In anticipation of an uprising, Mr. Boyle had fortified his house, stocked up on provisions including fuel and entrenching tools, some ball cartridge, gunpowder and even lead in order to make more cartridges, if required. He also provisioned the house with enough water to last 50 men for two weeks. What happened next is the stuff of legend. 67 men held out for seven days – attempts were made by the attackers to burn them out, cannon them out and even bribe them out, and every attempt failed. The held their position and never considered defeat. On the seventh day they were relieved by the army of General Eyre and Arrah was saved.

So why has Arrah all but disappeared from the annals of the Mutiny, appearing occasionally more as an afterthought than as an actual event?
The siege of Arrah does not fall into the classic mould of mutiny stories – there were no suffering women and dying children, in fact only one member of the garrison, a Sikh soldier, was severely injured in the entire seven days and that by flying splinters of wood, no less. The daring of the besieged at Arrah is strictly a man’s domain, what men can do when faced with the impossible and are willing to do everything to save their necks. Unlike soldiers, they approached their dilemma as engineers. Unable to ascertain how many rebels were actually in area and thinking it unadvisable to abandon the station when there might in fact only be a few rebels around, they doggedly decided to stay put. So on the night of the 26th of July, with mutual agreement, the officers and residents of the station, along with the Sikh soldiery, occupied their house and dug in their heels. When water began to run short, a well, eighteen feet by four, was dug in less than 12 hours, thus solving one of their pressing problems.  When the rebels raised a barricade on top of a house opposite, the garrison built theirs up in proportion. When shot was directed at the weakest point in the defences, the spot was immediately fortified and made stronger. The made a sortie out of the defences to fetch some sheep when hunger began to tell, and dug a countermine to stop the one the enemy were digging. There was no stoic suffering at Arrah – only determination and obviously plenty of practicality. Three or four of the best shots were generally on the roof  who were disciplined enough to weigh out an advantage by waiting until the enemy were within a hundred yards of the defences and then made every shot count.  Why the mutineers did not just storm the place and have it done with cannot be explained in any simple terms.  Mr. Wake, who wrote a diary during siege on a wall in the house, put it down to, 
“nothing but cowardice, want of unanimity, and only ignorance of our enemies prevented our fortification being brought down around our ears.” 
It must have been a bitter moment when the rebels realised there were never more than 67 men in the Arrah garrison.

With no lurid tales of horror and suffering, and the very fact that the siege of Arrah was fought voluntarily by a group of men who throughout had a very possible path of escape available, the story fell far short of what the Victorian public wanted and were quick to turn their attentions elsewhere. Only Rudyard Kipling thought they were worth more than an afterthought and in that sentiment, wrote his short story, "The Little House at Arrah."

Popular Christian Sentiment and the Mutiny: Arthur Marcus Cheek

Marcus Cheek
The Martyr of Allahabad

One story which quickly captured the imagination of the public was that of Ensign Arthur Marcus Hill Cheek. The book, “The Young Martyr of Allahabad” first appeared in 1857 and was written by the Reverend Robert Meek. In his hands, the story is turned into one of heroic Christian suffering, the perseverance of faith in the face of adversity and the 16 year old ensign turns into a martyr with all the trimmings.

Fate was decidedly unkind to Arthur Marcus Cheek. 

On the 20th of March 1857, 16 year old Marcus (as he was called by his family) left Southampton and reached Calcutta on the 28th of April. He received his appointment as an ensign in the 6th Bengal Native Infantry. He was allowed three weeks to visit his uncle and relatives who were residing in India, after which he travelled to Allahabad to join his regiment.  On the 19th of May he reached his destination.  On the evening of the 5th of June, the 6th Bengal N.I. broke out into open mutiny. Anyone who could, escaped to the fort and remained besieged there until the 11th of June when the forces of General Neill arrived. However, what happened to Marcus?

On the night of the mutiny, Marcus had left the mess-room early and had returned to his rooms.  It was a short respite. The violence which accompanied the outbreaks was no different in Allahabad and the same scenes were acted out here as in the other stations. In the mess room alone nine ensigns were murdered. The next part of Marcus’ tale is based more on probability than on solid fact – on hearing shots fired,  Marcus left his rooms and went outside. It did not take long before a sepoy had spotted him, cut him down with a sword and left him for dead. Severely wounded, Marcus managed to escape and hid in a ravine on the banks of the Ganges.  For four days he remained hidden, in spite of his injuries, he had even tried to climb into a tree. On the fifth day, he was found by a band of sepoys and taken to the Moulvie, the leader of the Allahabad insurgents. He was held captive until the 17th when the Moulvie fled Allahabad. Marcus was found and brought into the Fort but he was beyond saving and died shortly afterwards from his wounds and dehydration.

The Fort at Allahabad
London Illustrated News, 1857

Although Marcus, in moments of consciousness, did attempt to give an account of his escape and subsequent capture, his story was too “confused” and has not been recorded in his own words. What we do have are the accounts of people who saw him shortly after his rescue up to the point of his death, after which they wrote letters to his family giving their versions of events.  It is here that Marcus slips into the beau ideal of a Christian hero.

During his captivity, Marcus had been kept in a room with the Reverend Gopenauth Naundy with his family, and Conductor Coleman and his family. The reverend was severely tortured, and had been admonished by his tormentors to give up his faith and convert to Islam. On the verge of breaking, it was Marcus who “saved” the reverend with the words, “Padre Sahib! Hold onto your faith! Don’t give it up!” Or alternately, “Oh my friend - come what may, do not deny the Lord Jesus Christ!” Whichever phrase he used, it had the effect of restoring the reverend’s faith, and gave him the strength to resist his tormentors.

Marcus’ last words, however, were not addressed to his Saviour or reserved for noble ideas. At the very last, he wanted to write to his mother.

In the aftermath of his death, a flurry of letters arrived at the door of his parents, some from exalted personages but also from strangers - each extoling the virtues of Marcus and his unshakeable faith. The Honourable and Reverend Baptist W. Noel, M.A., went as far as composing a poem in Marcus’ memory (though in all fairness, he does dedicate it not only to him but to the other ensigns murdered at Allahabad). The Essex Herald published “An Incident in the War” an equally tumultuous poem in Marcus’ honour written by someone calling themselves Alpha.  We can only hope that somewhere, in all those words was at least a few that gave some measure of comfort to his poor, grieving parents.

It is equally touching however, that in one of the letters, written by Mrs. E.B. Lanzeen, although there is mention of Marcus at first, she had concerns of her own. Her nephew, 18 year old Thomas Lane Bayliff had arrived in Allahabad the day before Marcus and had been killed on the 6th of June. She ends her letter with the sad words, “He too, was a jewel; but few find grace early or late to shine with lustre such as your dear lost son’s.” Poor Thomas Lane Bayliff – had he had the presence of mind to utter the right words at the given time, there might have been two martyrs of Allahabad.

Marcus was held up to the awed public as a “shining example of Christian fidelity, to stimulate other young persons to cultivate by prayer and diligence those Christian graces which can arm the unprotected sufferer with the same courage to bear affliction, even captivity and torture, without giving up their trust in the power and love of their Saviour.” According to the Reverend Meek and many others of the day, Marcus died not in vain, but upholding the very ideals of spirited Christianity, and with all these virtues embodied in the soul of a young boy, nonetheless! It is Victorian heroic sentiment let loose in grand style and far from reality or in effect, from the truth. What Marcus Cheek represents is the true face of the mutiny. Away from the heroics and the posturing of men doing their duty, here was a boy, one of the many at the wrong place, at the wrong time, who had no idea finally, why he had to die. This is not martyrdom, it is grim fury of war.

Sunday, 10 February 2013

The Relief of Lucknow, in Film

This is a short silent film, courtesy of Colonial Film, produced by the Edison Company, in 1912, about the Relief of Lucknow. The film was first shown in 1912 and four veterans of the siege were present at the viewing. The accompanying article from the Penny Illustrated Paper notes that the veterans were "roused by the correctness of the details.."

Relief of Lucknow

Friday, 8 February 2013

The Original Defenders of the Garrison

There were, according to Edward Hilton 2,994 people at the start of the siege -

130 British and Native Officers
740 British Troops
700 Native Troops
150 Civilian Volunteers
237 Women
260 Children
50 Boys of La Martinere
27 non-combatant Europeans
700 non-combatant Natives *

The siege was not altogether an English one and to think thus is completely untrue and terribly unjust. As the English on the whole did not even list the names of their own  foot soldiers so they did not mention the brave Indians who stayed loyal to them during the siege. A look at some of the memorials gives a better and a slightly  more honest picture:

Erected in memory of the devoted gallantry and fidelity of the Native Officers and Sepoys of the Hon'ble Company's 13th Bengal Native Infantry (Garud-ka- Fultan), who fell during the defence of Lucknow. This monument is erected by the surviving European officers of the Regiment in the Baillie Guard Post, which was held by the regiment throughout the defence. Subadar Doondayal Pandey, Subadar Ram Pershad and Subadar Sheo Charan Singh, Jamadar Bhawani Bux Chowbe, Kalka Tewari, 9 Havildars, 8 Naiks, 5 Drummers, 24 Sepoys.

(As a reward every member of the three faithful regiments (13th, 48th and 71st) were formed into a new regiment — the present 16th Rajputs (the Lucknow Regiment). In the end 1 Subadar Major received the 1st class, 11 Bubadars the 2nd class of the Order of Merit. 16 Havildars were promoted to Jamadars of whom 2 also got the 2nd Class of the Order. 23 Naiks were promoted to Havildars, and 55 sepoys to Naiks; drummers and other followers received three months' pay. One Naik was promoted to Subadar with the 2nd Class of the Order, and 3 Naiks and 3 Sepoys to Jamadars in the Cawnpore Levy.)


To the memory of the Native Officers and Sepoys of the 13th Native Infantry, 41st Native Infantry, 48th Native Infantry, 71st Native Infantry, the Oudh Irregular Force, Native Pensioners, New Native Levies, Artillery, and Lucknow Magazine who died near this spot, nobly performing their duty, this column is erected by Lord Northbrook, Viceroy and Governor-General of India, 1875.

The 200 men of the 33rd Native Infantry remained loyal through out the siege, performing their duty with marked excellence at the exposed defences of the Baily Guard. As of the 1st of July, there were 12 native officers, 28 non-commissioned officers, 13 drummers and 136 rank and file.

The figures on the 1st July 1857 were as follows, and apply to the 13th Native Infantry as to the rest of the Indian soldiers:
41st Native Infantry.— 16 Drummers. 
48th Native Infantry. — 5 Native Officers, 18 Havildars, 24 -Drummers, 26 rank and file. 
71st Native Infantry. — 12 Native Officers, 14 Havildars, 11 Drummers, 7 rank and file. 
Oudh Irregular Force.— 7 Native Officers, 17 Havildars, 79 rank and file. 
Native pensioners. — 6 Native Officers, 3 Drummers, 109 rank and file. 
New Native Levies.3 Native Officers, 1 Havildar, 44 rank and file. 

Artillery. — 5 Native Officers, 18 Havildars, 6 Drummers, 146 rank and file. 
Lucknow Magazine. — 4 Havildars, 10 rank and file. 
7th Light Cavalry. — 4 Native Officers, 2 Havildars, 4 rank and file

Total, with the 13th Native Infantry.— 54 Native Officers, 102 Havildars, 73 Drummers, 618 rank and file, or 847 out of a total force of 1,698.

“To the Memory of
The Native Officers and Sepoys
Of the
13th Native Infantry, 41st Native Infantry
48th Native Infantry, 71st Native Infantry
The Oude Irregular Force,
Native Pensioners, New Native Levies
Artillery and Lucknow Magazine
Who died near this spot
Nobly performing their duty.”

 In the following memorandum, (Appendix 3, Gubbins) Martin Gubbins charts the original strength of the Lucknow Garrison, and includes a total of "its reduction by Deaths, Desertations, etc., during the Siege."

Strength of the Garrison on the 1st of July:                      
927 Europeans
765 Natives
Total- 1692
Reduction during the Siege:
305 Europeans
133 Natives
230 Deserted
Remaining Strength on the 29th of September, 1st Relief including sick and wounded:
577 Europeans
402 Natives
Total -979

Number of Officers killed and died in the Garrison from the 29th of June to the final relief by Colin Campbell:
41 Military
2 Civilian
1 Assistant Chaplain
5 Warren
Total -49

In Julia Inglis’ book, the following reckoning is given:


Artillery:                       80
H.M.’s 32nd:                600
H.M.’s 84th:                  50


Sikh Cavalry:              60
7th Light Cavalry          9
13th Native Infantry   250
48th Native Infantry     43
71st Native Infantry    117
                                               479   =     1209
There is little mention of "other" natives, that is, the servants, ayahs, water carriers and laborers who remained in the entrenchments during the siege, except for this rather sad accounting from Julia Inglis:

“Double this number of natives had remained true to their salt, and never mutinied; but it was not deemed advisable to keep them all, as they out numbered the European portion of the garrison.”

If the above reckoning is correct, then there are close to a 1000 people who remain nameless and I tend to trust the numbers of Hilton as being the most accurate. These discrepancies are probably the greatest tragedy of the siege - the stories of the uncounted can never be told and they remain, like the residency, ghosts of a dead age. I cannot do them justice in this work, nor is it possible to resurrect their tales, however, I hope that the visitors to the Residency today, will keep them in mind and spare a thought for all the sacrifices that did not make it into the pages of any book.

The numbers above bear this out. By far not all the Anglo Indian families have been listed and very possibly many ordinary soldiers’ families are missing too.  I recently came across Maggie McDonnough, the 12 year old daughter of an English sergeant of the 7st N.I. - Maggie died during the siege of a bullet wound to the head - her death is described in the Polehampton memoir but Maggie herself and her father do not appear on any of the roll calls which list the names of the original members of the Lucknow Garrison. Her mother is mentioned as Mrs. McDonnough only. Why Maggie was left out is a mystery. 

Mrs. Harris mentions a few servants by name and that only in passing – there is Chunia, a Madrasi her husband employed during the siege to help in the household chores,  “Scott” a wet nurse, and although she is described as a “copper coloured individual” this does not help in defining her in any detail (a soldier’s wife perhaps)  and Ramsay who Mrs. Harris writes towards the end of her journal  as being  “Mrs. D’s African servant”. As Ramsay had attended both Mr. Polehampton and Charlie Dashwood during their final illnesses, he was present for the entire siege.  Ramsay makes a further appearance in Mr. Polehampton's journal (published after his death by his brothers), as Thomas Ramsay, "an African-Christian born at Boston" who had a good knowledge of English. Unfortunately, the reverend convinced himself the man was a spy as he had been late in attending his duties and came up with odd excuses for his tardiness. The real origins of Thomas Ramsay are unknown. There has been some talk on one forum that he was an American. The Polehamptons had two other men in their service, one is only called the Baboo and the other is Peter, "the native Christian Church Chuprassi". Mr. Gubbins had in his service an English maid named Chivers who is only mentioned briefly in his book. 

As Mrs. Inglis writes:
"The servants who remained with us were our khansama, who acted as cook, Carruk and Quilbert, who took care of the boys, my ayah and her son, John's khidmadgar and four punkah coolies. Mrs. Case also had several servants so we were well off. The cook and his wife were the only ones who ran away, the others were outside the Residency when the siege commenced. Our bearer, an excellent servant, went out to try and bring in his wife, and could not get back again. Mrs. Case's ayah was at her house ill. Our syces (grooms) also remained faithful." Her husband's "soldier servant" Vokins, died during the siege following the amputation of his leg.

In some cases, though these omissions had less to do with an inability to count and more with prejudices of race and rank which were common at the time.  It can be taken for granted that the original lists deal almost exclusively with Europeans, and to add to that, Ladies and their Children, meaning the families of officers and persons of higher status. The rather naive anecdote by Mrs. Harris in her journal entry for June 19th, gives a good idea of what status and rank meant:

“I went yesterday evening with James to the Begum’s house to see the poor women who came in from Seetapore, and gave them a few things of mine which I thought would be useful as they had lost all their own clothes…They were very cheerful and seemed quite to have got over their troubles. It is wonderful how little that class of people seem to feel things that would almost kill a lady.”

Rees makes a differentiation and lists European Women and their Children (Mrs. Harris’ “that class of people”) so at least in his list of the garrison we can find some Eurasian names and the families of the uncovenanted services.

An example of this is Mrs. Allnutt – in the list of Rees, she is mentioned as having 4 children and having survived the siege. However, in Wilson’s list she only has one child and the child is dead. By the time we get to the Hilton s cemetery guide, Mrs. Allnutt and one child are dead.  Although there is plenty of written material available, there is simply not enough to add meat to the bones, so to speak. Even worse is Mrs. Beale. She was the wife of  Mr. Beale, noted in Inglis as an "overseer of roads", he was shot on July 11th wounded in the back from a a rifle shot and died a week later.  According to Wilson, there is a Mrs. Beale  with no children. However, Julia Inglis refers to a Mrs. Beale, as being the woman who had appealled to her for milk for her baby. (Inglis, 14th August). In Hilton's 2nd Edition Tourist Guide to Lucknow and the Residency, Mrs. Beale is listed as having 2 children and the whole Beale family is dead. How many children were there?

Many infants born during the siege are not recorded on the lists mainly because their birth and death followed one another so quickly they simply did not make it to the final count. This is where the journals prove to be infinitely useful – being written by women who were preoccupied with the day to day grind of living, some babies do get at least a mention.  One of these sad tales is of the Clarke family:

Dying of smallpox, Mrs. Elizabeth Clarke was one of the refugees of Gondah. Her husband who had been the assistant commissioner of the district was killed and she arrived at the residency eight months pregnant and carrying her 21 month old son Matthew Edgar, in her arms. Combined with the grief of her husband’s death and her oncoming confinement Mrs. Clarke had very few reserves to draw upon.  During her illness she became delirious, alternately calling on her servants to bring her dhoolie, then requesting her friend, Mrs. Bartrum to help her pack as she “was going on a long journey” and reciting random Bible verses. After three days, she died. Unable to name her baby who was born two days before her death, it was named Elizabeth by Reverend Harris and duly baptized. The baby died, only 5 days old. Her son died soon after.

 I have made an effort to collect all the names I could find in regard to the original garrison at Lucknow, present during the siege. I did this really for myself as I needed to see the people whose history I have chosen to write about. The list is not complete as I have only come up with 660 entries, give or take a few, but at least the garrison has a face. It is difficult to remember people as being flesh and blood when they died so long ago - but give them a name, an event and slowly they begin to take form. 

Edward Hilton

The grave of Mr. William Marshall, Opium Contractor, and his mother-in-law, Anne Sanson.

The Allnutt family 
The grave of the Reverend Polehampton

Neill and the 1st Madras Fusiliers

The grave of Charles Robert John Morgan

*I use the word Native, as a direct transcription and it should be read in context of the times and ist not intended in any possible way as a slur. This will always be a point of contention between students of colonialism and our modern brethren - political correctness was not a problem for Victorian authors, simply because it had not been invented to our modern standards at that time - I choose to use the words of the original authors, after all, these are their journals and a memory of their times, not mine.